Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Treatment

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Dr. Divya Kumar

ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING

Are you experiencing abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB)? This term encompasses any menstrual bleeding that deviates from the norm in terms of quantity, duration, or schedule. AUB is a widespread gynecologic concern that can lead to chronic, heavy, prolonged, or irregular uterine bleeding. Such conditions may result in anemia, disrupt your daily life, and raise concerns about uterine cancer.

If you're grappling with heavy bleeding during your period or irregular bleeding between periods, you could be experiencing abnormal uterine bleeding near me. It's important to note that bleeding during pregnancy is a separate issue. If you're pregnant and notice any vaginal bleeding, it's imperative to contact your doctor without delay.

If you're seeking expert care for abnormal uterine bleeding, look no further. We are here to help. We are the premier Uterine Bleeding Doctors in Faridabad, dedicated to addressing your specific needs. Whether you're searching for Abnormal Uterine Bleeding treatment in Faridabad, our team is committed to providing you with the highest quality care.

In cases where uterine bleeding requires advanced treatment, such as Uterus Removal Surgery, you can trust us to deliver safe and effective solutions. Our experienced medical professionals are ready to guide you on your path to better health.

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What are the Symptoms?
  • You get your period more often than every 21 days or farther apart than 35 days. A normal adult menstrual cycle is 21 to 35 days long. A normal teen cycle is 21 to 45 days.
  • Your period lasts longer than seven days (normally four to six days).
  • Your bleeding is heavier than normal. If you are passing blood clots and soaking through your usual pads or tampons each hour for two or more hours, your bleeding is considered severe and you should call your doctor.
  • You have bleeding after menopause.
  • You have bleeding or spotting after sex.
  • You have bleeding or spotting between periods.
What Causes Abnormal Bleeding?
  • Problems with ovulation;
  • Fibroids or polyps (common abnormal growths in the uterus or cervix);
  • Bleeding disorders;
  • A condition in which the endometrium grows into the wall of the uterus (adenomyosis)
  • Problems linked to some birth control methods, such as an intrauterine device (IUD) or birth control pills
  • Certain types of cancer, such as cancer of the uterus
  • Abnormal pregnancy (miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy or normal pregnancy
How is Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Diagnosed?

The doctor will need to diagnose the cause of any abnormal bleeding: is it related to hormonal dysfunction, pregnancy or the uterus. Your doctor will ask how often, how long, and how much you have been bleeding. Your doctor may also conduct a pelvic exam, have you undergo a urine test for pregnancy, blood tests for hormone levels and possibly a pelvic ultrasound to evaluate the uterus and ovaries. These tests will help your doctor understand the cause of your abnormal bleeding. He or she may also take a tiny sample (biopsy) of tissue from your uterus for testing.

How is it Treated?

Once the doctor and you are able to discover the cause of your abnormal bleeding, treatments can be discussed. Typically, medications are the first course of action in treating AUB. Often, the medications that are prescribed include:

  • Birth control pills— Birth control pills are often used to treat uterine bleeding due to hormonal changes or hormonal irregularities. Birth control pills may be used in women who do not ovulate regularly to establish regular bleeding cycles and prevent excessive growth of the endometrium. In women who do ovulate, they may be used to treat excessive menstrual bleeding. Abnormal bleeding from some abnormal uterine conditions can also be treated with birth control pills.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) – These drugs (e.g. ibuprofen, naproxen sodium) may also be helpful in reducing blood loss and cramping in these women. During the menopausal transition, birth control pills or other hormonal therapy may be used to regulate the menstrual cycle and prevent excessive growth of the endometrium.
  • Tranexamic acid – This medication taken during your menses reduces heavy menstrual bleeding.
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists – These drugs can stop the menstrual cycle and reduce the size of fibroids by inducing a temporary menopause.
  • Progesterone— Progesterone is a hormone made naturally by the ovary that is effective in preventing or treating excessive bleeding in women who do not ovulate regularly. A synthetic form of progesterone, called progestin, may be recommended.
  • Intrauterine device— An intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) that secretes progestin (Mirena or Skyla) may be recommended for women who have abnormal uterine bleeding. Progestin-releasing IUDs decrease menstrual blood loss by more than 50 percent and decrease pain associated with periods. Some women completely stop having menstrual bleeding as a result of the IUD, which is reversible when the IUD is removed.

FIBROID UTERUS

Uterine fibroids are noncancerous (benign) growths in or around the uterus and usually occur between the ages of 30 and 40. Signs and symptoms of uterine fibroids can include heavy or painful menstrual bleeding, a sensation of pelvic pressure or fullness, compression of the bladder or bowels, and difficulty with fertility.

Medications may be helpful to improve heavy bleeding, and nonsurgical approaches can decrease bleeding and shrink fibroids. Surgical therapy to remove the fibroids or uterus is sometimes the best option. Fibroids can be located in different parts of the uterus, and the approach to treatment may vary depending on their size and location and your treatment goals.

If you have symptoms of uterine fibroids, your doctor may order these tests:

  • Ultrasound. If confirmation is needed, your doctor may order an ultrasound to get a picture of your uterus to confirm the diagnosis and to map and measure fibroids.
  • Lab tests. If you have abnormal menstrual bleeding, your doctor may order other tests to investigate potential causes. These might include a complete blood count (CBC) to determine if you have anemia because of chronic blood loss and other blood tests to rule out bleeding disorders or thyroid problems.

Other imaginG TESTS

your doctor may order other imaging studies, such as:

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This imaging test can show in more detail the size and location of fibroids, identify different types of tumors and help determine appropriate treatment options. An MRI is most often used in women with a larger uterus or in women approaching menopause (perimenopause).
  • Hysterosonography. Hysterosonography also called a saline infusion sonogram, uses sterile saline to expand the uterine cavity, making it easier to get images of submucosal fibroids and the lining of the uterus in women attempting pregnancy or who have heavy menstrual bleeding.
  • Hysterosalpingography. Hysterosalpingography uses a dye to highlight the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes on X-ray images. Your doctor may recommend it if infertility is a concern. This test can help your doctor determine if your fallopian tubes are open or are blocked and can show some submucosal fibroids.
  • Hysteroscopy. For this, your doctor inserts a small, lighted telescope called a hysteroscope through your cervix into your uterus. Your doctor then injects saline into your uterus, expanding the uterine cavity and allowing your doctor to examine the walls of your uterus and the openings of your fallopian tubes.

ADENOMYOSIS

Adenomyosis occurs when the tissue that normally lines the uterus (endometrial tissue) grows into the muscular wall of the uterus. The displaced tissue continues to act normally — thickening, breaking down and bleeding — during each menstrual cycle. An enlarged uterus and painful, heavy periods can result.

Symptoms

Sometimes, adenomyosis causes no signs or symptoms or only mild discomfort. However, adenomyosis can cause:

  • Heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding
  • Severe cramping or sharp, knifelike pelvic pain during menstruation (dysmenorrhea)
  • Chronic pelvic pain
  • Painful intercourse (dyspareunia)

Your uterus might get bigger. Although you might not know if your uterus is bigger, you may notice tenderness or pressure in your lower abdomen.If you have prolonged, heavy bleeding or severe cramping during your periods that interferes with your regular activities, make an appointment to see your doctor.

Causes
  • Invasive tissue growth. Some experts believe that endometrial cells from the lining of the uterus invade the muscle that forms the uterine walls. Uterine incisions made during an operation such as a cesarean section (C-section) might promote the direct invasion of the endometrial cells into the wall of the uterus.
  • Developmental origins. Other experts suspect that endometrial tissue is deposited in the uterine muscle when the uterus is first formed in the fetus.
  • Uterine inflammation related to childbirth. Another theory suggests a link between adenomyosis and childbirth. Inflammation of the uterine lining during the postpartum period might cause a break in the normal boundary of cells that line the uterus.
  • Stem cell origins. A recent theory proposes that bone marrow stem cells might invade the uterine muscle, causing adenomyosis.
Risk factors

Risk factors for adenomyosis include:

  • Prior uterine surgery, such as C-section, fibroid removal, or dilatation and curettage (D&C)
  • Childbirth
  • Middle age

Most cases of adenomyosis — which depends on estrogen — are found in women in their 40s and 50s. Adenomyosis in these women could relate to longer exposure to estrogen compared with that of younger women. However, current research suggests that the condition might also be common in younger women.

Complications

If you often have prolonged, heavy bleeding during your periods, you can develop chronic anemia, which causes fatigue and other health problems.

Although not harmful, the pain and excessive bleeding associated with adenomyosis can disrupt your lifestyle. You might avoid activities you've enjoyed in the past because you're in pain or you worry that you might start bleeding.

AV MALFORMATION

An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal tangle of blood vessels connecting arteries and veins, which disrupts normal blood flow and oxygen circulation,responsible for taking oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the brain. Veins carry the oxygen-depleted blood back to the lungs and heart.

When an AVM disrupts this critical process, the surrounding tissues may not get enough oxygen. Also, because the tangled blood vessels that form the AVM are abnormal, they can weaken and rupture. If the AVM is in the brain and ruptures, it can cause bleeding brain (hemorrhage), stroke or brain damage.

Once diagnosed, a brain AVM can often be treated successfully to prevent or reduce the risk of complications.

Symptoms

Symptoms of AVM vary based on where it's located. Often the first signs and symptoms appear after bleeding occurs. Besides bleeding, signs and symptoms can include:

  • Progressive loss of neurological function
  • Headaches
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Seizures
  • Loss of consciousness

Other possible signs and symptoms include:

  • Weak muscles
  • Paralysis in one part of the body
  • Loss of coordination that can cause problems with gait
  • Problems performing tasks that require planning
  • Weakness in the lower extremities
  • Back pain
  • Dizziness
  • Vision problems, including losing part of your field of vision, loss of control of eye movements, or swelling of part of the optic nerve
  • Problems with speech or understanding language
  • Unusual sensations including numbness, tingling or sudden pain Memory loss or dementia
  • Hallucinations
  • Confusion

Children and teens may have trouble with learning or behavior.

One type of AVM called a vein of Galen defect causes symptoms that appear at or shortly after birth. A vein of Galen defect is located deep inside the brain. Signs can include:

  • A buildup of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus) that causes enlargement of the head
  • Swollen veins on the scalp
  • Seizures
  • Failure to thrive
  • Congestive heart failure

Seek medical attention if you have any of the signs and symptoms of an AVM, such as headaches, dizziness, vision problems, seizures and changes in thinking or neurological function. Many AVMs are currently discovered incidentally, often after a CT scan or an MRI is obtained for reasons not directly related to the AVM.

Causes

AVMs result from development of abnormal direct connections between arteries and veins, but experts don't understand why this happens. Certain genetic changes might play a role, but most types are not usually inherited.

Risk factors

Rarely, having a family history of AVMs can increase your risk. But most types of AVMs aren't inherited.

Certain hereditary conditions may increase your risk of AVM. These include hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also called Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome

Complications

The most common complications of an AVM are bleeding and seizures. If left untreated, the bleeding can cause significant neurological damage and be fatal.

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